What is Middleware in .net core?

.NET Core is a popular open-source framework that is used to build modern, cross-platform applications. It provides developers with a set of tools and libraries to create high-performance applications that run on different platforms, including Windows, Linux, and macOS.

One of the essential components of .NET Core is middleware. Middleware is a piece of software that sits between an application’s request and response. It’s like a middleman that intercepts the request, performs some actions on it, and then passes it on to the next middleware or the application itself. In this blog, we’ll explore what middleware is in .NET Core and how it works.

What is Middleware?

In .NET Core, middleware is a type of software component that is used to handle requests and responses in an application. It is a pipeline that can be customized to perform various tasks such as authentication, authorization, caching, logging, and error handling. Middleware sits between the web server and the application and can modify the incoming requests or outgoing responses.

Middleware can be used to perform a wide range of tasks, including:

  • Authentication and Authorization: Middleware can be used to authenticate and authorize users before allowing them access to a resource or page.
  • Logging: Middleware can log incoming requests, outgoing responses, and exceptions to a log file or database.
  • Caching: Middleware can cache responses to improve performance and reduce the load on the server.
  • Compression: Middleware can compress responses to reduce the size of the data being sent over the network.
  • Routing: Middleware can route incoming requests to different parts of the application based on their URL or other criteria.
  • Error Handling: Middleware can handle errors and exceptions that occur during the processing of a request.

How does Middleware work?

Middleware is added to the application’s request pipeline, which is a series of middleware components that process incoming requests and outgoing responses. The request pipeline consists of a series of middleware components, which can be added and removed as required.

Each middleware component performs a specific task, such as logging or authentication, and then passes the request to the next middleware component in the pipeline. The final middleware component in the pipeline sends the response back to the client.

Middleware can be added to the pipeline in two ways:

  • Using the Use() method: Middleware components can be added to the pipeline using the Use() method. This method takes a delegate that represents the middleware component.
  • Using the Map() method: Middleware components can also be added to the pipeline using the Map() method. This method maps a URL or route to a middleware component.
    For example, the following code adds the authentication middleware to the pipeline using the Use() method:

In the above code, the UseAuthentication() method adds the authentication middleware to the pipeline.


Middleware is an essential component of .NET Core that allows developers to customize the way requests and responses are handled in an application. It provides a flexible and extensible pipeline that can be customized to perform various tasks such as authentication, authorization, logging, and error handling. By using middleware, developers can build high-performance applications that are secure and reliable.

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